Try now!

Validate your spreadsheet for free

Create & Maintain Good Spreadsheets

In order to create and maintain with consistently good spreadsheets, there are a number of good practices to keep in mind. Here we provide a list of tips to improve the way you work with spreadsheets.

Introduction to Creating & Maintaining Spreadsheets

We want to help you create and maintain good spreadsheets. That’s why we’ve set up a list of expert tips, that address commonly made mistakes when using Excel.

Because of its flexibility, Excel is considered an easy general-purpose tool for spreadsheets. However, being easy to use comes with its own drawback. It is very easy to make mistakes in complex Excel spreadsheets. Errors that are commonly found in Excel spreadsheets are incomprehensible calculations, complex relations, hidden information or just plain mistakes.

Use these guidelines as a tool to create clear and concise spreadsheets. Do you want to make sure your spreadsheet is as good as it can be? Upload your spreadsheet with PerfectXL for a free risk analysis or create a free account.


1. Preparation of a good Spreadsheet

Before developing your spreadsheet, choose an organization standard and stick with it for as long as you’re using the spreadsheet. An organization standard sets the stage for all future users who end up working with the spreadsheet. A shared standard improves communication and saves up in development time. Standardized organization may include cell formatting, general layout, color scheme, ordering, etc.

2. Create Worksheets with the Future in Mind

Creating Worksheets

3. Think about the Order of Worksheets

Put different kinds of data on different worksheets. For example, use the first few worksheets for input information, the following worksheets for calculations and the last sheet as a presentation worksheet for graphs and results. Limit the amount of tables per worksheet to just one. Multiple tables per worksheet cause problems when attempting to sort, insert or format cells.

Explanatory worksheets show other users how the spreadsheet should be used.

When creating a large number of worksheets, add an explanatory worksheet or a worksheet dedicated to a table of contents. This makes it easier for someone to understand how the spreadsheet is set up. Explanatory worksheets also show other users how the spreadsheet should be used.

Read our full guideline about the importance of documenting your work

4. Choose Clarity over Looks

If your worksheet is user oriented, use an attractive “Results Worksheet”. If not, don’t! Most worksheets work best when they are designed to provide clarity of all present calculations. You can try splitting up long formulas, but do not hide them to provide more clarity for users.

5. Keep your Timeline Consistent

Timeline Consistency in your Spreadsheet

6. Organize the Information Flow

Try to organize worksheets in such a way that information always flows from top left to bottom right. This makes it considerably easier for a user to understand how the sheet works. Exceptions to the rule are an “Input Worksheet” and/or a “Results Worksheet”. Putting these at the start increases clarity for users, which is especially useful for a user oriented worksheet. When managing the flow of information, avoid criss-cross dependencies as they greatly detract from understandability. At all times avoid circle chain relations, if a link to any previous data is needed.

7. Label your Columns and Rows

Labeling columns and rows in your spreadsheet

8. Keep Formulas Readable

Splitting up calculations into multiple smaller calculations is a great way to increase readability, as is correct use of spacing. Too many different operators or too many different references in a formula can make the formula unreadable. This causes the spreadsheet to be hard to use by anyone other than its creator. The original author ends up always being the one having to explain it to others, or even ends up being the only user actually able to work with the spreadsheet.

Many spreadsheets are hard to use by anyone other than its creator.

9. Avoid Repetitive Formulas

Avoid Repetitive Formulas in your Spreadsheet

10. Avoid Fixed Numbers in Formulas

Use a separate input cell for fixed values and employ references to this cell in order to use it in calculations. A formula that contains fixed numbers is a major risk. If the value ever changes, it needs to be changed in every instance it appears. This is, at the very least, cumbersome when dealing with large worksheets. At worst, it is one of the easiest ways to create mistakes.

Read our full guideline about why you should avoid using fixed numbers in spreadsheets

11. Do not Merge Cells

Do not merge cells in worksheets of your spreadsheet

12. Avoid Hiding Data

Hiding columns, rows, or even entire worksheets from view is almost never a good idea. It only increases the chance that a user overlooks something important when working with the spreadsheet, increasing the risk for errors. The only exception to this rule would be when it is absolutely necessary to hide information that somehow can not be put into a separate worksheet. Since it’s almost always possible to separate sensitive data, these cases are rare.

Hiding data increases the risk for errors.

Read our full guideline about the dangers of hiding information

13. Build in Data Verification

Building in data verification, such as audit tests, alerts and automated checks, is a good way to avoid making any damaging changes or additions to existing work. It is important to build these in when the worksheet is created. Not doing so often leads to forgetting about them later on. Data verification is an excellent way to build a strong foundation for worksheet maintainability.

14. Save Styling for the End

Save styling of your spreadsheet for the end

15. Keep Styling Consistent

Your choice of styling should remain consistent throughout the entire spreadsheet. A simple and consistent style for formatting is critical to help viewers understand your spreadsheet. Always include a legend. Abbreviations and colored cell definitions can be listed on a separate worksheet if needed.

16. Keep Conditional Formatting Simple

Conditional formatting helps the viewer understand how the spreadsheet works. Complex formatting rules defeat that purpose by obscuring how the spreadsheet is set up. It also causes confusion for the user. Keep the rules for conditional formatting simple (e.g. changing colors based on cell content).

17. Use Positive Numbers

Use positive numbers in your spreadsheet

18. Be Clear Which Units Are Used

Make sure viewers can always trace the units that are used in the spreadsheet. You can do this by either setting the units in the cell properties within Excel, or you can mention them in a column label. But beware: never type a currency symbol (€, $, £ etc.) directly after a value. This causes problems when using the value in a formulas.

19. Clarify your Sources

Clarify Sources

20. Avoid the Use of Macros

Always use Excel’s solutions before resorting to VBA macros. VBA macros make the spreadsheet less transparent, as they abstract away logic. For some tasks, VBA macros even perform worse than Excel’s default solutions.

21. Use Simple Ranges

For many calculations in your spreadsheet, it is good practice to incorporate additional empty rows or columns. This prevents future edits of the spreadsheet from messing up your formulas. The less you use separate small ranges, the smaller the chance of erroneous calculations in the future.